A Brief History of
Anita Dutton's 8th Grade
Graduation Speech at the Foreign School, July 2, 1969.
More than 700 years
ago, Indians mined copper in Northern Chile. They fashioned the copper
with stone hammers and then melted it in crude adobe furnaces. They
blew through long canes to enliven the fires. With the copper they made
bells for their llamas, knitting needles and necklaces. When the
Spanish arrived in search of gold, they were unimpressed with this metal
and did not seek to wrest it from the Indians.
It is recorded that
Don Felipe Tapia made the earliest claims in the Agua Dulce mining
district in 1894. Two years later, Don Eduardo Tellez made several
attempts to organize the Compania Minera de Potrerillos. The area was
called Potrerillos which means "Little Fields". The name referred to
solitary pieces of grass and bush which grew nearby. Shortly after,
William Braden who was called "Father of the Andes", became interested
in the mines. He found a camp of rich copper and organized a thorough
exploration and decided the area was worth developing. In 1916 Mr.
Braden interested the Anaconda Company in the area. The Andes Copper
Mining Company was incorporated by Anaconda as a subsidiary and Anaconda
took over the Braden options. The Potrerillos mine marked the Company's
entry into the Republic of Chile.
One of their first
tasks was to build wharves and warehouses at the seaport of Barquito.
By 1918 this work was completed. The next step was to equip the
property; in 1916 a railroad was built connecting the mines of
Potrerillos with the seaport of Chaņaral. One hundred twenty-four miles
of pipeline were installed to supply potable water. 89.6 miles of
electric transmission lines were put up.
A town site at
Potrerillos was established. It included 237 dwellings. The American
School was built in 1919 and a wing was added in 1927. In the 1920's,
the Hospital, the Gerencia, the Church, the Pulperia and the smelter
were built. Mules, horses, track-cars and steam engines were the main
means of transportation. A few years later 800 homes were added to the
town. At that time, the houses were all gray.
William Wraith, as
Vice-President in charge of Operations, played a vital role in
developing the area. More than $45,000,000 was spent in equipping the
property before the first ton of blister copper was produced. By the
end of 1924 all was ready for operations to begin in full swing.
Because of an overburden of waste, open pit mining could not be
practiced. The ore body was mined by block caving. At the outset, both
oxide and sulphide ores were mined. The average copper content over the
years has been 1.50%. The oxide ores became exhausted leaving only
sulphide, and over the years the production began to decrease. In 1949
the production really went down and the end of the Potrerillos mine was
in sight within the next decade.
After much exploration
a replacement 15 miles away was found. The site was called Indio Muerto.
It not only insured the company a future supply of copper in the area,
but it saved Potrerillos from extinction. It was decided that the ores
would continue to be processed here. There is evidence of old Indian
encampments and burial grounds nearby. Early Chilean prospectors were
attracted to the area by green copper stained outcrops. The district
had been abandoned for many years. "Indio Muerto" meaning dead Indian
was considered to be an inappropriate name for the new village with a
bright future, so the name was changes to El Salvador - "The Saviour".
During the past month,
officials of the Anaconda Company and the Chilean government have been
discussing the future of the Anaconda properties in Chile. Last week,
President Frei announced to the nation that Chile will purchase a 51%
interest in the properties. After a three year period Chile hopes to
begin acquiring complete ownership of Chuquicamata, El Salvador and